Single tree silviculture (STS)

Single tree silviculture (STS)


Silvicultural approach that early selects a limited number of target trees to which ensure a free and harmonious development of crown and trunk. The thinnings are selective or from above and they are oriented to remove the direct competitors of the target trees, preserving the remaining stand. The target trees are chosen as a function of vigor, stability, tree morphology, spatial distribution. The number of released target trees (from 50 to 120 per hectare) depends on the site characteristics, the species, the biotic and abiotic risks, the type of owner, the silvicultural goal. · This approach can be applied in high forests and in coppices, in conifers (as Pinus nigra and Pseudotsuga Douglasii) and broad-leaved species, to social (Fagus sylvatica and Quercus sp.) and valuable (Castanea sativa) or sporadic tree (Prunus avium, Sorbus sp., Fraxinus sp., …) species, in public or private property. To apply this method is necessary: Specific training and care of technicians and workers from tree marker to logging Specific training of people involved in the control of the forest utilization. · From an economic and productive point of view: decreasing the management costs reduction of rotation time increasing of quantity and quality of assortments production of high-quality timber relatively quickly enhancement of phenotypes and / or species potentially able to produce quality timber - From an ecological and environmental point of view: increase of individual and stand stability increase of biodiversity increase of structural complexity maintenance of an irregular canopy cover protection of sporadic species - From a social point of view: integration with the traditional forestry increase of non-wood products increase of landscape value

Region of origin
Type of wood
Origin of wood
Mobilization Potential
Similar to traditional silviculture but with a higher amount of big and more valuable assortments
Kind of wood concerned
Sustainability Potential
Very positive
Impact on environment & biodiversity

Positive effects

Ease of implementation
Medium implementation due to the great attention during the cutting and logging phases
Economic impact
Enhancement of valuable assortments; decrease of management cost but increase of expertise of forest companies
Job effect
Connection to other wood and no-wood chain
Income effect
Possibility to obtain income more frequent during the rotation period
Specific knowledge needed
Forest training
Key prerequisites

Awareness of all stakeholders in the supply chain

Forest management, ecosystem, resilience
Digital solution
Country of origin
Region of origin
Scale of application
Start and end year
2010 - 2019
Contact data
References and Resources
Project under which this factsheet has been created